Minerals first registration project

As part of our minerals portfolio, we hold titles to mines and minerals in various areas of England and Wales.

These titles are largely of historic origin and in most cases derive from reservations to the Crown under the Inclosure Awards and Acts of the early 19th century, which attempted to set clear ownership boundaries in certain areas for the first time, or from freehold sales and grants by The Crown Estate from which we reserved (excluded from the sale or grant) the mines and minerals under the land.

Because of the historic origin of most of these titles, they pre-date the modern land registration system and as ownership has not changed, there has been no compulsion to register these. Also, when first registration of surface titles has taken place, often, these reservations have not been picked up.

In order better to manage our portfolio and make clear our ownership, as well as to take advantage of provisions of the Land Registration Act 2002 which now provide a method to register lands held by the Crown, we are undertaking a programme to register all of our real property assets; this includes surface land and foreshore as well as mines and minerals.

We would emphasise that registration of our titles to mines and minerals should not be taken as an indication of any intent by The Crown Estate to exploit the minerals underneath owners’ properties, but merely to ensure that our existing mines and minerals titles are registered so that ownership of these is clear.

Minerals Registration Project

Frequently Asked Questions

This note has been prepared by The Crown Estate and lodged with its application. It has neither been prepared by nor endorsed by the Land Registry.


Why are you registering your title to mines and minerals below my property?

We have applied to register the mines and minerals that we own throughout the UK as part of a project to register all of our titles. We are not seeking to claim any new rights or ownership, we are simply registering our existing titles to make our ownership clear. We have brought forward this aspect of our registration project to avoid any doubts regarding deadlines for registration of various rights contained in the Land Registration Act 2002.

Why did I hear from the Land Registry and not from The Crown Estate?

It is the Land Registry’s function to register titles to land. We have applied to register titles that we own. Where appropriate, the Land Registry notify other owners of an application made to them. We do not know the names and addresses of surface owners so we are not able to contact them beforehand.

Is this a new claim for ownership of mines and minerals?

No. We have owned these mines and minerals for many centuries. Under the Inclosure Awards of the early 19th century, inclosures of land (plots) were allotted to various parties. These inclosures have been sold subsequently and are now vested in the current owners as their current title. However, under the Inclosure Acts, which governed the Awards, or in the Awards themselves, the Crown often retained the mines and minerals beneath the surface of the land. The result was that inclosures did not include the mines and minerals beneath the surface.

Why don't my current title deeds show that you own the mines and minerals under my property?

The titles of many owners show that their ownership specifically excludes mines and minerals, although it might not show who owns them. Other titles have not picked up on this exclusion as this information may have been omitted over the many transactions and changes of ownership over the centuries. However, this does not change the fact that the mines and minerals still belong to The Crown Estate.

Can I challenge the registration of minerals?

Yes. The notice from the Land Registry tells you how to do this. If you choose to do this, the Land Registry will inform you whether or not they can proceed with your objection and if not why not. However, we would always recommend that you seek legal advice.

Why are you doing this now? Does it mean you intend to start mining?

No. This is simply part of our ongoing registration process. The vast majority of our rights have been held for centuries without any minerals being extracted, and it is probable that most will never be mined. We must take a long view far beyond the current situation and current surface ownership; we have an obligation under the Crown Estate Act 1961 to protect our titles and the best way to do this is registration of all of our titles (whether surface or subsurface) so that ownership of these is clear to all.

In the unlikely event that extraction works become possible or likely in the future, we would always seek the consent of the homeowners affected and only authorise any works to be carried out where appropriate compensation arrangements for affected landowners had been put in place.

Will this affect the value of my property or make it harder to sell or mortgage?

The mines and minerals have always been owned by The Crown Estate, so there is no change in ownership. The only change is that title to these will now be registered. Both your and our ownership will remain the same as before, it is simply made clearer by registration. We cannot guarantee the value of your property but the current Council of Mortgage Lenders guidelines do not consider the reservation of minerals to be a significant matter. As such, we cannot see any reason why this would have any impact on value or marketability.

Will this affect my buildings insurance?

Underwriting policies are the responsibility of the insurer but our view is that because there is no intention to undertake mining activity there would have no effect on your ability to obtain insurance.

Can I buy the mineral rights beneath my property from you?

We are not registering the mineral rights in order to derive an income from selling them. At the moment we have no plans to sell any of these rights.

How do I get a copy of your registration application and evidence of title?  The notice from the Land Registry tells you how to obtain these from them. You must approach them and not The Crown Estate.

Does your title include coal, oil and gas?

No. Under the Coal Industry Act 1994 The Coal Authority owns all coal. Under the Petroleum (Production) Act 1934 Her Majesty owns all oil and gas within the land area of Great Britain. However, the 'Crown' in this context is not The Crown Estate which has no ownership or role in licensing. The Crown Estate does not engage in oil and gas exploration or production. This is the responsibility of HM Government and more specifically the Department for Energy and Climate Change which issues all licences for petroleum extraction, even in relation to land forming part of The Crown Estate.

Does your title include gold and silver?

No. However, the ownership of gold and silver, known as 'Mines Royal', are owned separately by The Crown Estate.

Does The Crown Estate intend to use its registered title to undertake 'fracking'?

The Crown Estate has no role in Shale Gas extraction and in this is no different from any landowner in the UK. Under the Petroleum Act 1998, rights to the extraction of shale gas are vested in Her Majesty in right of the Crown. However, the 'Crown' in this context is not The Crown Estate which has no ownership or role in licensing. This is the responsibility of HM Government and more specifically the Department for Energy and Climate Change, which exclusively licenses and permits shale gas extraction nationwide, even in relation to land forming part of The Crown Estate.

Will this registration affect my rights to develop my property or build on my land?

No. Our title only relates to the mines and minerals beneath the surface, not the surface or subsoil itself.

Will I need to obtain The Crown Estate’s permission to enter into the subsoil for works on utilities etc?

No. Permission from The Crown Estate would not be required for any works affecting your land or property, unless you intend to carry out mining or mineral extraction operations.


Prosiect Cofrestru Mwynau

Cwestiynau Cyhoeddwyd gan Ystad y Goron a Ofynnir yn Aml

Mae'r nodyn hwn wedi cael ei baratoi gan Ystâd y Goron a chyflwyno â'i gais. Mae wedi nid ei baratoi gan nac gymeradwyo gan y Gofrestrfa Tir


Pam yr ydych yn cofrestru eich teitl i fwynfeydd a mwynau o dan fy eiddo?

Rydym wedi gwneud cais i gofrestru mwynfeydd a mwynau ein bod yn berchen ar hyd a lled y DU fel rhan o brosiect i gofrestru pob un o'n teitlau. Nid ydym yn ceisio hawlio unrhyw hawliau neu berchnogaeth newydd, rydym yn cofrestru ein teitlau presennol yn syml i wneud ein perchenogaeth glir. Rydym wedi dwyn ymlaen yr agwedd hon ar ein prosiect cofrestru er mwyn osgoi unrhyw amheuon ynghylch dyddiadau cau ar gyfer cofrestru o wahanol hawliau a gynhwysir yn Neddf Cofrestru Tir 2002.

Pam wnes i glywed gan y Gofrestrfa Tir ac nid o Ystad y Goron?

Mae'n swyddogaeth y Gofrestrfa Tir i gofrestru teitlau i dir. Rydym wedi gwneud cais i gofrestru teitlau yr ydym yn berchen arnynt. Lle bo'n briodol, mae'r Gofrestrfa Tir yn rhoi gwybod i berchnogion eraill o gais a wnaed iddynt. Nid ydym yn gwybod enwau a chyfeiriadau perchenogion arwyneb felly nid ydym yn gallu cysylltu â nhw ymlaen llaw.

A yw hwn yn gais newydd ar gyfer perchnogaeth mwynfeydd a mwynau?

Na Rydym wedi bod yn berchen mwyngloddiau a mwynau hyn am ganrifoedd lawer. O dan Gwobrau Cau Tir o ddechrau'r 19eg ganrif, inclosures o dir (lleiniau) eu clustnodi i amrywiol bartïon. Mae'r rhain inclosures wedi cael eu gwerthu ar ôl hynny ac yn cael eu bellach wedi'u breinio yng perchnogion presennol fel eu teitl cyfredol. Fodd bynnag, o dan y Deddfau Cau Tir, a oedd yn llywodraethu Gwobrau, neu yn y Gwobrau eu hunain, i'r Goron yn aml yn cadw y mwynfeydd a mwynau o dan wyneb y tir. Y canlyniad oedd nad inclosures yn cynnwys y mwynfeydd a mwynau o dan yr wyneb.

Pam nad yw fy gweithredoedd eiddo presennol yn dangos eich bod yn berchen ar y mwynfeydd a mwynau o dan fy eiddo?

Mae teitlau llawer o berchnogion yn dangos bod eu perchnogaeth yn eithrio mwyngloddiau a mwynau yn benodol, er nad efallai yn dangos pwy sy'n berchen arnynt. Nid yw teitlau eraill wedi eu codi ar y gwaharddiad hwn gan y gallai wybodaeth hon wedi cael eu hepgor dros y trafodion lawer a newidiadau o berchnogaeth dros y canrifoedd. Fodd bynnag, nid yw hyn yn newid y ffaith bod y mwynfeydd a mwynau yn dal yn perthyn i Ystad y Goron.

A allaf herio cofrestru mwynau?

Ydw. Mae'r hysbysiad gan y Gofrestrfa Tir yn dweud wrthych sut i wneud hyn. Os byddwch yn dewis gwneud hyn, bydd y Gofrestrfa Tir yn rhoi gwybod i chi p'un a ydynt yn gallu symud ymlaen â'ch gwrthwynebiad, ac os na, pam peidio. Fodd bynnag, byddem bob amser yn argymell eich bod yn ceisio cyngor cyfreithiol.

Pam ydych chi'n gwneud hyn yn awr? A yw'n golygu eich bod yn bwriadu dechrau cloddio?

Na Mae hyn yn syml, yn rhan o'n proses gofrestru barhaus. Mae'r mwyafrif helaeth o'n hawliau wedi cael eu cynnal ers canrifoedd heb unrhyw fwynau yn cael eu tynnu, ac mae'n debygol y bydd y rhan fwyaf byth yn cael ei gloddio. Mae'n rhaid i ni gymryd golwg hir ymhell y tu hwnt i'r sefyllfa bresennol a pherchnogaeth arwyneb cyfredol; mae gennym rwymedigaeth o dan Ddeddf Ystâd y Goron 1961 i ddiogelu ein teitlau a'r ffordd orau o wneud hyn yw cofrestru pob un o'n teitlau (boed wyneb neu subsurface) fel bod perchnogaeth o'r rhain yn eglur i bawb.

Yn yr achos annhebygol y gwaith cloddio yn dod yn bosibl neu'n debygol yn y dyfodol, byddem bob amser yn ceisio caniatâd y perchnogion tai yr effeithir arnynt a dim ond awdurdodi unrhyw waith i gael ei wneud lle bo trefniadau iawndal priodol ar gyfer dirfeddianwyr yr effeithir arnynt wedi cael eu rhoi ar waith.

A fydd hyn yn effeithio ar werth fy eiddo neu ei gwneud yn fwy anodd i werthu neu forgais?

Mae'r mwynfeydd a mwynau bob amser wedi bod yn eiddo i Ystad y Goron, felly nid oes unrhyw newid mewn perchnogaeth. Yr unig newid yw y bydd teitl at y rhain yn awr yn cael eu cofrestru. Mae'r ddau bydd eich ac mae ein perchnogaeth yn aros yr un fath ag o'r blaen, mae'n cael ei wneud yn syml gliriach trwy gofrestru. Ni allwn warantu y gwerth eich eiddo, ond nid yw'r Cyngor ar hyn o bryd o ganllawiau Benthycwyr Morgeisi yn ystyried y llain mwynau i fod yn fater o bwys. Fel y cyfryw, ni allwn weld unrhyw reswm pam y byddai hyn yn cael unrhyw effaith ar werth neu marchnadwyedd.

A fydd hyn yn effeithio ar fy yswiriant adeiladau?

Polisïau danysgrifennu yn gyfrifoldeb yr yswiriwr, ond ein barn ni yw bod gan nad oes bwriad i ymgymryd â gweithgarwch cloddio fyddai yna yn cael unrhyw effaith ar eich gallu i gael yswiriant.

Alla i brynu'r hawliau mwynol dan fy eiddo oddi wrthych?

Nid ydym yn cofrestru'r hawliau mwynau er mwyn ennill incwm oddi wrthynt gwerthu. Ar hyn o bryd nid oes gennym unrhyw gynlluniau i werthu unrhyw un o'r hawliau hyn.

Sut ydw i'n cael copi o'ch cais cofrestru a thystiolaeth o deitl?

Mae'r hysbysiad gan y Gofrestrfa Tir yn dweud wrthych sut i gael hyn oddi wrthynt. Mae'n rhaid i chi atynt ac nid Ystad y Goron.

A yw eich teitl yn cynnwys glo, olew a nwy?

Na O dan Ddeddf 1994 Yr Awdurdod Glo Diwydiant Glo berchen ar yr holl lo. O dan Ddeddf Petrolewm (Cynhyrchu) 1934 Ei Mawrhydi yn berchen ar yr holl olew a nwy o fewn yr arwynebedd tir o Brydain Fawr. Fodd bynnag, nid yw'r 'Crown' yn y cyd-destun hwn yw Ystad y Goron sydd heb unrhyw berchnogaeth neu rôl mewn trwyddedu. Nid yw'r Ystad y Goron yn cymryd rhan mewn ymchwilio neu gynhyrchu olew a nwy. Cyfrifoldeb Llywodraeth EM ac yn fwy penodol yr Adran Ynni a Newid Hinsawdd pha faterion yr holl drwyddedau ar gyfer echdynnu petrolewm, hyd yn oed mewn perthynas â thir sy'n rhan o Ystad y Goron yn hyn.

A yw eich teitl yn cynnwys aur ac arian?

Rhif Fodd bynnag, mae perchnogaeth aur ac arian, a elwir yn 'Mines Royal', yn eiddo ar wahân gan Ystad y Goron.

A oes gan Ystad y Goron yn bwriadu defnyddio ei deitl cofrestredig i ymgymryd â 'ffracio'?

Mae Ystâd y Goron unrhyw rôl mewn echdynnu siâl nwy ac yn hyn yn ddim gwahanol i unrhyw dirfeddiannwr yn y DU. O dan Ddeddf Petrolewm 1998, hawliau i echdynnu nwy siâl yn breinio yn Ei Mawrhydi yn y dde o'r Goron. Fodd bynnag, nid yw'r 'Crown' yn y cyd-destun hwn yw Ystad y Goron sydd heb unrhyw berchnogaeth neu rôl mewn trwyddedu. Cyfrifoldeb Llywodraeth EM ac yn fwy penodol yr Adran Ynni a Newid Hinsawdd, sy'n trwyddedu yn unig ac yn caniatáu echdynnu nwy siâl ledled y wlad, hyd yn oed mewn perthynas â thir sy'n rhan o Ystad y Goron yn hyn.

A fydd y cofrestriad hwn yn effeithio ar fy hawl i ddatblygu fy eiddo neu adeiladu ar fy nhir?

Na Mae ein teitl ond yn ymwneud â'r mwynfeydd a mwynau o dan yr wyneb, nid oedd y wyneb neu isbridd ei hun.

A fydd angen i mi gael caniatâd Ystâd y Goron i fynd i mewn i'r isbridd ar gyfer gwaith ar gyfleustodau ac ati?

Ni fyddai Na Caniatâd gan Ystad y Goron yn ofynnol ar gyfer unrhyw waith sy'n effeithio ar eich tir neu eiddo, oni bai eich bod yn bwriadu gwneud gwaith cloddio neu echdynnu mwynau.